The productivity of major crops in the country has improved during 11th Plan Period. However, productivity of most of the crops in India is still lower as compared to international standards.
Major reasons for low productivity of various crops in the country as
compared to other countries are small and fragmented land holdings, lack
of irrigation facilities, improper nutrient and pest management, low
use of good quality seeds, lack of adequate machinery and low adoption
of improved package of practices, etc.
In order to enhance productivity of various agricultural crops Indian
Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) undertakes research programmes
to increase the productivity of crops like cotton, maize, mustard,
paddy, pulse, sugarcane and wheat through crop based research
institutes. The research programmes include basic and strategic research
related to crop improvement, crop production, crop protection, post
harvest operations, value addition, etc.
The technical information so developed are used by crop specific All
India Coordinated Research Projects situated in State Agricultural
Universities to develop location specific varieties and technologies.
Total 136 improved varieties/ hybrids in these important crops have been
released during 2010-11 by National Agricultural Research System
(NARS). Apart from the varieties developed for high yield and tolerance
to diseases, several trait specific varieties and crop production and
protection technologies etc. have also been developed.